It can be confusing as to what the temperature of ones Crabitat actually is sometimes.
One buys a thermometer to place on the inside of their Crabitat to monitor the air temperature. The hermit crabs original home is in the tropics, so air temperature of ones Crabitat is important so not to cause them any undo stress. The thermometer is placed at substrate level, along with the humidity gauge, to monitor the temperature and humidity within the tank where the hermit crabs spend the majority of their time.
Even doing this, there are times when some crabber’s experience complications with their hermit crabs. For some unknown reason, they begin to have hermit crabs going shell less within their Crabitat. When asked what the substrate temperature is, they are bewildered. Most have never heard of monitoring the substrate temperature, or even thought to feel the substrate to see just how warm it is. Within the first year of my crabbing, I had discovered during the first cool months that even though the thermometer on the wall of my tank may have read 72 degree’s Fahrenheit, there were times, which the substrate temperature within my Crabitat was actually much higher than what the wall thermometer read. I had found that the substrate temperature was in reality 80 to 80+ degrees Fahrenheit (26.67-26.67+ Celsius) when I took the temperature where my UTH, (under tank heater), was located. I began to take the substrate temperature as frequently as I read the inside wall thermometer for this reason. Frequently, I had found there to be a discrepancy between the two temperature readings. The wall thermometer reading and the actual substrate temperature would vary as much as 5-10 degrees, and sometimes more. During the colder months, the thermometer on the tank wall usually read much lower than what the substrate temperature was.
During the warmer months, the substrate temperature was usually cooler than what the wall thermometer reading was. It seemed as I was continuously taking the temperature of my substrate and needing to plug or unplug the UTH on our tanks according to what the reading of the thermometer was. For this reason, I invested in Electronic Temperature Controllers that had a probe that went into the substrate of my Crabitat. I set the temperature of the Controller to 78 degrees Fahrenheit (25.56 Celsius) to maintain a steady stable temperature within my Crabitat. I would like to take this opportunity to suggest to every crabber that along with monitoring the temperature of the air of their Crabitat, to please also monitor the temperature of their substrate, especially where their UTH or other warming source is located. Substrate temperature is just as relevant as the air temperature within ones Crabitat, especially if one has a hermit crab burrow into it, which they have been known to do.
A hermit crabs natural home is in the tropics. For this reason, they should have a stable air temperature in the Crabitat of 74-78 F (22-25 C) degrees. When a hermit crab is subjected to a temperature of 70 degrees F, (21 C) they will begin to go into a hibernation type state. If it is not corrected, this is stressful to the hermit crab, and can eventually be lethal to them. Anything 82 degree’s F (28 C), or higher, there is a high chance of them over heating, which can also be lethal to them. Hermit crabs are cold blooded creatures. For this reason, with the warm side of the Crabitat substrate being 78-80 F (25.56-26.67 C) there should always be a cooler side as well (72-73 F/22.22-22.78 C) for the hermit crab to choose where they are most comfortable at to regulate their body temperature.
written by Jenn Borgeson, Vanessa Pike-Russell, Crab Lover Don
Hints on keeping your hermit crabs warm by Hermies Yahoo!Groups Members
Jenn on Insulation:
Make sure your crab tank is in a naturally warm part of the house but NOT near a heater or heating vent … I keep my small 3 gallon plastic molting tank on the kitchen counter. Kitchens are naturally one of the warmer more humid places in your house. Also check out your bathroom or laundry room, but watch the temp … you don’t want them to get TOO warm.
You can also make a Crab-gloo very cheaply using foam board from your local craft or drug/groocery store. The board usually runs no more than $2 per poster board sized piece. Two pieces should do the trick depending on the size of your crab tank. To do this measure the height, the front (width) and the side (depth) … Add 1″ to each of these measure ments. Lets say your tank is 12″ high, 14″ wide and 8″ deep … so you will cut out 3 pieces that measure 13″ by 15″ (your crab-gloo back/top/front) and two pieces that measure 13″ by 9″(the sides) … With me so far? Good!
Now break out the duct tape … you will need to tape the sides on at 90 degree angles to the back. Now tape the top on to just one sides … this will work like a hinge and your can open and shut it to get into your tank. Place your 3 sided box over your hermie tank. The front piece is kind of optional … you can leave it loose and just set it in place at night to help keep your hermies toasty … or a good idea would be to tape it on just one side ( like the top to create a door … open it during the day, close it at night!
Your parents should not complain about this at all because you have just followed a plan and done geometry in the process! If you want to toss in some art … how about drawing and coloring background scenes on your foam board for your hermie friends to enjoy?! My kids to this on a regular basis with construction paper … sometimes they are at the beach, the mountains, school … it’s really up to YOU!
Keeping them Warm, by CLD:
The IDEAL temperature for your hermit crabs is around seventy-four degrees F. They are most content at this temperature, this is the night time temperature in their native land. Remember that this is the temp that you are trying to achieve at the substrate level….after all, isn’t this the level that they spend most of their time!!?? Keeping the tank between that 70 to 80 degree temp is what you are aiming for… Be sure to keep your thermometer at substrate level, since that is where they spend all their time and heat rises so true temperature would be difficult to obtain from a thermometer placed in the upper tank region.
If the temperature gets too low(50-60 degrees F), dormancy and hibernation will occur. A long hibernation may permanently affect the hermit crab. A long hibernation may permanently affect the hermit crab. They don’t actually die unless the temp gets REALLY low (below 50 degrees F) However, when a crab gets too hot(a brown liquid discharge is an ‘overheat’ indicator), it causes irreversible damage and a usually quite painful death. Getting over 80 degrees is playing with fire. They may also hang out of it’s shell, be inactive, spend extra time in the water dish, or dig a lot to find cooler temperatures. Be sure to keep the temperature from fluctuating as this may cause stress.
The tank should also be kept between 50-60% exact humidity level (76-82% relative humidity, sometimes a gauge will measure in relative but most of the time they measure exact). If the air is too moist your crabs will have a hard time breathing. Bacteria, molds, and other harmful stuff will grow in the tank as well causing sickness and stress. A good way of knowing this if you don’t have a humidity gauge is if there is condensation on the sides. If the air is too dry their gills will dry out and they will slowly suffocate. Their gills need to be moist for them to breathe properly, this one reason why lightly misting them once a day is encouraged. Be sure to keep the humidity from fluctuating as well because this may cause stress.
There are two different types of heating equipment you can use…
A Moonglow Bulb- A 15 watt or less bulb is the only thing FMR (The Worlds Most Knowledgeable & Caring Supplier of Hermit Crabs)recommends(you may verify this via FMR at 1-800-535-2722 M-F 5-9 Eastern time….ask for Kathy), anything more will dry your crab and your tank out and could easily “bake” your crabs. Some strong bulbs have also been known to cause sunburn on hermit crabs. An incandescent nocturnal black light bulb coated with rare earth element to stimulate the natural glow of the moon is preferred. They can see a little better at night and you can see them a little better. They tend to like the extra atmosphere might be a little more active; they will even often bask in the glow at night. Turning the moonglow bulb on and off CAN create temperature changes that might cause stress to your crabs so keep it on all the time. Moonglow bulbs are not recommended as a primary source of heating and are best used in conjuction with
An Under the Tank Heater- FMR makes one for tanks under 5 gallons that meets all specifications for Hermit Crabs and this 4 X 6 inch heater can be used on both a plastic ‘critter keeper’ and glass aquariums. You can order it online at petdiscounters.com if your pet store doesn’t have it. Other companies manufacture them in larger sizes and temp ranges. Make sure it will not heat your tank over 80 degrees F. You want to allow for some warmer and cooler areas on the tank, so it is not a good idea to buy a heater to cover the entire bottom of the tank. Unless you go into a really high quality product, you probably will not find a heater that can be regulated via a thermostat and many will raise the tank 10 degrees above whatever the original temperature was. Adjusting substrate depth is the best way to regulate the temps. Be sure to keep your water pool and natural sponges directly above the heater because this will help ensure proper humidity levels.
Keeping a large sponge in a dish with water in it, over the heater is good for raising humidity. The water (warmed by the heater) is drawn into the sponge which helps ‘disperse’ the humidity into the air a little better, by providing a larger surface from which the water evaporates. You can order under the tank heaters that heat tanks up to 60 gallons as well as FMR’s brand online at petdiscounters.com if your local pet store doesn’t have one.
What Not to Use for Heating
Don’t use a heating rock as these are generally made for lizards and get too hot. The crabs may also climb on top of them causing great harm and the heat is too centralized. Also do not use a heating pad as they are not designed for this particular use. They need air ventilation and circulation that properly designed undertank heaters have and regular heating pads don’t. Heating pads will melt plastic and bake crabs.
Keep a thermometer in the cage and be sure to turn off any heating equipment when the substrate gets too hot. If it is the summer time and your house is very hot you can keep the tank on the floor(hot air rises), invest in an air conditioner, keep them in the shade and out of direct light, keep windows open, provide drinking water that is a bit cooler than usual, etc.
Crab-Gloo history, by CLD
“Folks: I am going to add a little to an earlier post. I wanted to back up what Jenn posted about using the foam board as an insulator. It has been a staple at Kritterland from the beginning!
My first crabs were adopted in the middle of the winter in February of ’97. They were in a medium sized plastic ‘kritter carrier’… I was very concerned about taking them out in the cool air, knowing that they shouldn’t get chilled…. We were at an indoors Arts and Crafts show….and as we were looking I saw the ideal remedy….Someone was selling those soft-sided insulated lunch/beverage coolers. SO……….. my new guys came home warm and happy that night.
The ‘six-pack’ size worked for that medium carrier! We now have several sizes of carriers and coolers just ‘incase’… the first one stays in the car just incase we go to a pet store…. Works great in the summer too to keep the sun from baking them…another serves as a back-up ‘iso area’
Now, the problem of warmth after getting them here…was another concern! Being a former art teacher, I had some foam board sitting around so I got out the old exacto knife and we created an insulated ‘box’ to go around the carrier… This was adapted to work with each upgrade to larger tanks…with the foamboard around the back and sides of the tank… (one sheet of foamboard takes care of a ten gallon tank.) It was cheap and worked well. Since then I have suggested it to many folks as an alternative. I used this while doing my studies with the undertank heaters and nocturnal light bulbs. I found that I could MAINTAIN a much better and consistant temperature level with the three-sided insulation than without it. I have passed along this suggestion to many others and it works quite well in a school setting….allowing the kids to change the backgrounds with their art work…. I do have ‘front covers of foam board to use in case of an emergency ….
have used other colors but prefer the white foamboard… and using clear or white tape to make the hinged ‘corners’… have used velcro to secure the pieces also… So since then we still use the insulation idea… plus, the crabs can see their reflections better and their activies at that are very entertaining!
I like the fact Jenn gave this ‘thing’ a name…. “Crab-gloo” is much more catchy than ‘the box’… Have fun with this and let your imagination go wild. One school here had a contest to see which class had the best ‘backdrops’ for their crabs… some changed the background weekly….it was great fun and a good project for both art and science lessons…. with the little hermies benefitting from all the fun ‘environments’created just for them. As Jenn pointed out this is a fairly cheap way to go until you can get alternative heating! Have fun and Happy Crabbing! CLD” Message 353 at Hermies Yahoo!Groups
MoonGlow Bulbs and more by Jenn:
It is best to do as Crablover Don did and leave a moonglow bulb and heater on twenty-four hours and regulate your tank tank temp and humidity by using a piece of cardboard, spool of thread, or something to prop open your glass top (you can place plastic wrap or towels over 2/3 of a screen top), and by increasing the depth of the substrate OVER the undertank heater and keeping your water pool and natural sponges above the heater. He was also able to stabilize the temperature by placing foam on the outside of the tank on 3 sides.
From: “Jenn Borgesen”
Hi All! I’m back, but am still in the process of transferring data from my old computer to the new! I am tickled to see all the great topics being discussed on the list and ‘naturally’ I just have to toss in my two bits here and there! Cold Crabs: Seems to me we had this discussion last spring and again last fall! To recap … Yes, E crabs are particularly susceptable to temperature fluctuations. I know it is hard to keep things stable when one day you’re running the furnace and the next day it’s the a/c! Here’s some of the stuff that’s been offered up in past discussions to help maintain even temperatures in your crab tank … 1. Build a Crab-gloo! I think I have the basic instrux somewhere on my old system, but if a list member still has it handy … please feel free to post it! Basically, using your tank measurements, foam board and duct tape, you can build a quickie shelter to help hold in the heat when the temp starts to dip. Use your tank measurements plus 1″ to construct a 5 sided shelter. Don had a couple of those zip up 12 pack ‘coolers’ … he’d place one of his smaller plastic molting tanks in it to keep babies warm on the way home from the store … again any kind of insulation will help keep warmth inside the tank. 2. Hot water bottle …. just like it sounds, if the power is out and the temp is dropping fill a plastic bottle with hot water and place it in the tank to help create radiant heat to keep your babies warm. This can be done in conjunction with the above Crab-gloo 3. Make sure the tank is well away from direct sunlight and drafty areas … a well sheltered spot along an inside wall is best. Hope this helps! New Tank … Rick, it sounds like you are coming up with some great ideas and I am glad to hear that any heat from a blowdryer will not come into contact with the crabs. On the subject of under the tank heaters not covering the full bottom of the tank … you really don’t need them to. Having only half of the tank covered can become quite a benefit, especially if the temp should fluctuate as in the above – cold crabs – The crabs will have opportunity to self regulate if only half of the tank bottom is heated. If things get too hot they can move to the cooler side and conversely if the temp falls! Some crabbers who live in colder climates do use two heaters in winter to get complete bottom coverage. But I find with a closed lid system one UT heater designed for your tank size (ie 5 gal, 10 gal, etc.) is sufficient. Gotta run fer now guys … time to zip a few more files! Jenn
Messages from Hermies Yahoo!Groups:
What do I do to keep them warm?!
You can surround the tank with insulation — styrofoam or blankets work best. Fill the water and food dishes first, so you don’t have to open the tank and let heat out later. If you have a cooler chest and still have power, make up some hot packs now — hot water bottles, or soaked hot washcloths in a ziplock bag — and hopefully the chest will keep them warm for use later if needed.
We lost power and were snowed in for two days last year, and I actually resorted to putting all the guys in a critter keeper (easier to do then, I had 7, not 28!) and took them into the car with the heat turned on full blast — just made sure to keep lots of water in the tank so they didn’t get too dry. I think I also used the car heater to warm up some water for a hot pack for the tank, too…
HTH, and hope your weather has settled down a bit,
Bracing for Bad Weather
Hi all ..
Woke up to about 6″ of that white fluffy stuff this morning. The good news is that it was so warm yesterday (61 deg!) that a lot of it is melting on the pavement. But what was left was oh so heavy to shovel, no exercise needed for me today!
The bad news … the snow is really sticky and is all over the trees and powerlines. Very pretty, but bad news if we get much more of it or if the wind picks up! My poor Canadian Hemlock tree looks like a closed umbrella, tons of snow holding down the branches! So we’re prepping for a potential power failure here just in case!
I do have a gas hot water heater so I can make up hot water bottles to help keep the crab tanks warm … and I’ve already taped together a crabgloo and pulled out old blankets to wrap the tank should the worst occur!
Hope everyone else in the storm’s path is doing well!
We’ve got about 6″ of snow with frozen rain on top, but thankfully the power is still on. I see there have been some great help posted for folks without power … in times of real desperation, we’ve used hot water bottles, towels & blankets and once I even put crabs into a paper lunch bag, stapled the lid and slipped them into the inside pocket of my down jacket to transport them to warmer quarters with the rest of the family.
Subject: Re: Another Humidity Dilema
I had a feeling this may happen. As I said on the phone, once you get the humidity up to a good level, it often stays in the tank and sometimes rises a little high. I would stop dampening the driftwood and perhaps place it in a plakkie bag (as Craig calls it) and sanitise it in the microwave or dry it out in the sun.
The humidity level will change as the weather warms up (as it has done over the last week here in Tassie) and this is one of the reasons the humidity gauge is so essential, so that we can maintain the humidity when need be. What is the humidity level now? 85 isn’t too bad, but if it goes above 90 you may find condensation on the sides of the wall and perhaps the beginning of bacteria problems if left unattended. I know that isn’t the case with you, but just that it can happen.
There have been times when my humidity level snuck from 75 to 90 overnight, so I did the standard things of placing the water dish over the unheated side, turned the UTH down only slightly, and left the lids off for five minutes or so while I washed out the bowls and refilled the food dishes. Sometimes this is all that I need to get the humidity level to where it need be.
Basically it is trial and error until you find what works best for your enclosure. As always, you know I’m only a phone call away
Look out, though… antarctic blasts are headed our way! Under Tank Heater alerts, and perhaps create a CrabGloo from Don’s example of four walls of styrofoam cut to measure, then taped up to help insulate the tanks. Being the Art Teacher that he was, Don also recommended decorating the CrabGlo while you are trying to keep warm, creating not just an insulation but a background while you are at it!
Past background painting competition entrants can be found at http://comps.aboutlandhermitcrabs.com
There has been a lot of false information when it comes to hermit crab care over the years. One of the biggest known factors of land hermit crab deaths is dehydration from the use of desk lamps with a common household bulb, coupled with wood shavings as substrate in a plastic ‘kritter keeper’ with vented lid. Before under tank heaters or thermostats were made available to the public, many hermit crab owners were advised by pet stores to leave the desk lamp on overnight to help keep the chill of dropping temperature at bay. Desk lamps have been proven unsuccessful at meeting the needs of land hermit crabs as a primary heat source, resulting in fatality, especially when coupled with wood shavings as a substrate in an enclosure where any humidity escapes through the vented lid.
If you use an Under Tank Heater which covers half of the dimensions of the base of your tank as the primary heat source, you may not need the lamp as a heat source. You may be still want to illuminate the tank overnight (with a moon glow bulb with a rare phosphorus coating) so that you can watch the activity in the food dish or stare wide-eyed during a seashell swap. The only light recommended for night viewing is a moonlight-simulating globe (or moon glow bulb)that is coated with rare earth black phosphors that simulate the glow of the moon. Perfect for our hermit crabs who are more relaxed eating, climbing and swapping shells beneath the gentle light, which gently illuminates your crabitat. You will be amazed how much more active they will be with the extra warmth. It is my personal choice to use bulbs no higher than 40 watt, with 25W for a small crabitat. Others have chosen higher wattages to warm their larger (100 and 120 Gallon tanks. It is important to take the size of your crabitat, substrate type and other factors before deciding upon your lighting needs. It is very important to monitor the substrate temperature as well as the humidity level of the crabitat.
Some bulbs are of the ‘Edison Screw’ type, and require a lamp such as ZooMed’s Porcelain ReptiClamp Lamp or a Reptile Hood/Strip fitted for edison screw bulbs. Both are used over the tank, with the glass between the light and hermit crabs. A 15 Watt bulb can be used for lighting purposes, however the ambient (air) temperature may rise 1-2 degrees. With higher wattages you may notice a problem with keeping the humidity within the 75-78% range. Many hermit crab owners have chosen to add a large basin of water to their tank, or have installed drip systems, timed misters, or waterfalls to keep the humidity level from dropping.
It is important to keep a close eye on both the humidity and temperature within your hermit crab’s enclosure, and to provide an environment that will put your hermit crabs at ease as well as keep them happy and healthy. Investing in items such as under tank heaters, moon glow bulbs, hoods and possibly thermostat or rheostat to regulate conditions and your hermit crabs will have a higher chance of survival when Summer leaves us and cooler days approach. Left without adequate heating and humidity would usually result in lowered activity. hibernation and perhaps fatality. While a desk lamp may seem an economical solution, I’m sure you will agree that the death of a loved hermit crab is too high a price to pay.
Reptile Bi Light-The Energy Savers Reptile 30″ Combo Light is a three lamp light fixture designed to accommodate one 24″, 20 watt fluorescent lamp and two incandescent lamps
The Bi-Light 2 Reptile Hood Lighting Fixture features two single high-heat ceramic sockets on separate switches and separate power cords and accommodates two incandescent lamps up to 150 watts each. The lamps can be plugged into individual timers for both day and night cycling. Dimensions 24.75″x3.75″x5.75″
Reptile Bi Light 30″ – The Bi-Light Reptile Hood Lighting Fixture features a double high-heat ceramic socket built to withstand the higher heat that is emitted from high-wattage incandescent lamps. The fixtures are designed to direct light and heat down into the habitat. The double socket with single switch and cord holds two incandescent lamps up to 150 watts each. Available in 20″ or 30″ lengths. Dimensions: 30.25″x4″x5.75″
Night Glo Incandescent Bulb 15W-Simulates natural moonlight Coated with rare earth black phosphors Will not alter natural day length or photo period Protects pets from night time temperature drop Great for nocturnal viewing Promotes normal digestion & activity.
Reptile Strip Light-Accepts 1″ (T8) or 1-1/2″ (T12) diameter fluorescent reptile bulbs. Pre-assembled light fixture with a Super-UV fluorescent lamp included. It’s easy to install and ideal for areas with limited space. Now you can have high-quality, ESU Reptile fluorescent lighting in a convenient, ready-to-use fixture. It’s compact, lightweight and easy to install. The Super UV lamp simulates natural daylight and produces the appropriate UVA and UVB rays for calcium absorption and bone growth in reptiles.
Porcelain Clamp Lamp-
1. Custom ceramic base Clamp Lamp ideal for use with all types of reptile incandescent light sources or ceramic heat emitters.
2. Heat-resistant porcelain socket, handles up to a 150 watt spot or ceramic heat emitter.
3. Wire guard is safer than an aluminum reflector as it prevents unnecessary heat build up and possible hand burns.
4. Polarized plug for safety. Six foot power cord. Safety Clamp secures lamp to terrarium to prevent accidents (for extra safety, use the Repti Lamp Stand).
ZooMed Reptile Lamp Stand
1. For use in suspending metal dome or wire basket lamp fixtures (Great for use with a Repti Clamp Lamp, Economy Clamp Lamp or Brooder Lamp).
2. Two easily adjustable sizes to fit most standard terrariums.
3. Suspends heat fixtures that would otherwise be difficult to secure or use.
4. Helps prevent accidental knocking over or tipping of heat fixtures.
5. Special clips keep power cords secure and out of the way.
Note: As with heat from an under tank heater, it is highly recommended that a Thermostat is used.
My sisters and I received crabs over the summer. They were seperated for a while because of budget constraints (we had three small plastic fish tanks, but nothing big enough for multiple crabs) but have since been moved into one large tank back in my bedroom, a glass ten gallon with a glass fishtank lid. Their living conditions are better now than they were, but theres still one concern. My parents HATE the things, and when my apartment goes through I’ll be taking them with me, but for now they are trapped in the south-east corner room of the house. I live in the desert and this room is always warm. Ever yheater I could kept tempertures steady at a level above the ambient room temperature, but my room temp is already too high (85F). I’m currently hanging dechlorinated ice cubes from a thin bag with a fan near the tank. I spary the glass top of the cage to keep the humidity up. This works fine in the afternoons and on weekends when I can attend to the crabs hourly, but I need to find a way to regulate the temperature when I’m not around. I’m currently turning off the fan while I’m away, which increases the temperature, but prevents high evaporation rates. Does anyone know of anything that will lower the temperature in the tank? I’ve read everything I can get my hands on, but they all seem directed at people who have cold winters and pleasent summers.
Prior to getting our central air conditioning, our tanks would hit in the upper 80′s. Using a fan does help to circulate the air, but unfortunately dries the humidity in the tank which the hermies need to breath. What I had done, was I saved 16 oz. plastic Pepsi bottles. I filled them 2/3′s full of water and put them in the freezer. I used a Kool Aid cap (or other plastic lid) as a drip basin and pushed this in the substrate. I then put the frozen soda
bottle in the Kool Aid lid, with a couple of small sponges around the space between the Kool Aid lid and soda bottle so the little hermies didn’t get stuck and freeze to death. This made a cool place in the substrate if the hermies wanted/needed a place to cool off at. We did have a couple of hermies throughout the day that took advantage of the cool substrate in all our tanks. One thing I noticed about the frozen soda bottle, was that the outside of the bottle would be full of condensation, and at times I would have to empty the Kool Aid lid. I also noticed the humidity of the tank dropped, which meant that I had to use larger sponges to keep the humidity up.
PS. If you choose this method, start saving your soda bottles. The soda bottles would keep ice in it 4-6 hours on a ‘hot’ day. I would exchange these about 3-4 times a day, refreezing the ones I took out of the tank. Make sure to keep a close eye on the humidity level. The soda bottle will pull some of the humidity out of the tanks air so you may need to supply other water sources as well to keep the humidity level up. (you do have a lid for your tank right to help hold humidity within the tank?)
CSJ has just migrated to it's fourth new home...starting on Yahoo Groups back in 1999, then to NukeEVO, then XOOPS and now here on BuddyPress. All relevant articles and content have moved with us over the years. So while the items posted have my photo and name, I am not the author of all this valuable information. The original author has been credited where ever possible. We thank all those dedicated crabbers who went before us and contributed to our vast library of information.